Molecular Bio sensing , Bio robotics and Biomarkers

A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. The sensitive biological element (e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.) is a biologically derived material or biomimetic component that interacts (binds or recognizes) with the analyte under study. The biologically sensitive elements can also be created by biological engineering. The transducer or the detector element (works in a physicochemical way; optical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, etc.) transforms the signal resulting from the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into another signal (i.e., transduces) that can be more easily measured and quantified.

Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study. Biorobotics is often used to refer to a real subfield of robotics: studying how to make robots that emulate or simulate living biological organisms mechanically or even chemically. The term is also used in a reverse definition: making biological organisms as manipulatable and functional as robots, or making biological organisms as components of robots. In the latter sense, biorobotics can be referred to as a theoretical discipline of comprehensive genetic engineering in which organisms are created and designed by artificial means. The creation of life from non-living matter for example, would be biorobotics. The field is in its infancy and is sometimes known as synthetic biology or bionanotechnology.

Biomarkers that are used in clinical trials include those that are used as study endpoints, as well as those that are merely exploratory biomarkers. Exploratory biomarkers are used with the goal of arriving at a suitable panel that can subsequently be tested and validated, for use as endpoint in future clinical trials.

 

  • Antibody/antigen interactions
  • Artificial binding proteins
  • Enzymatic interactions
  • Nucleic acid interactions
  • Affinity binding receptors

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